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4K UHD: What Does it All Mean? p3


Other Standards: Digital Cinema Specification

Another set of standards that is mentioned in discussions of UHD TV, which have some bearing, are those of the Digital Cinema Initiative, a group formed by the major Hollywood movie studios to define standards for digital cinema to insure interoperability and consistency among studios, distributors, exhibitors, and digital cinema equipment manufacturers and vendors.  The first efforts resulted in the 2005 Digital Cinema Specification (DCI), a guide to producing the Digital Cinema Package (DCP) from files known as the Digital Cinema Distribution Master (DCDM), and how the DCP is to be decoded and presented in theaters.

The DCI does not create technical standards directly, but establishes specifications for which standards will be followed by the movie production chain in addition to setting requirements for the presentation of films and the theater environment as well as content protection.  DCI specifications typically refer to technical standards that are drawn from sources including SMPTE and ISO.  The current version of the specification is in several parts:

In addition to specifying ambient light levels and projection luminosity in the theater environment, the DCI specifies technical details for the film imagery and audio in terms of pixels, aspect ratio, frame rates, audio channels, bit depth, sample rates, as well as compression requirements and total data rates:

2D Imagery

  • 2048x1080 (2K) total pixel image at 24 or 48 frames/second in two aspect ratios: ASPECT

      CinemaScope (2.39:1) at 2048x858 pixels used

      Masked/Flat (1.85:1) at 1998x1080 pixels used

  • 4096x2160 (4K) total pixel image at 24 frames/second

      CinemaScope (2.39:1) at 4096x1716 pixels used

      Masked/Flat (1.85:1) at 3996x2160 pixels used

  • 12 bit color required for all formats except 2K at 48 frames/second at 10 bits
  • International Commission on Illumination (CIE) CIE XYZ color space
  • JPEG2000 image compression with wavelet decompositions of either 0-5 at 2K or 1-6 at 4K
  • Compression rates of 4.71 bits/pixel 2K at 24 Hz, 2.35 bits/pixel 2K at 48 Hz, and 1.17 bits/pixel 4K at 24 Hz with a maximum bitrate of 250 Mbits/second

Stereoscopic 3D Imagery

  • 2048x1080 (2K) total pixel image at 24 or 48 frames/second in two aspect ratios:

      CinemaScope (2.39:1) at 2048x858 pixels used
      Masked/Flat (1.85:1) at 1998x1080 pixels used

  • 10 bit per color chroma subsampled to 4:2:2 with a separate stream for each eye

High Frame Rate

  • Recommended practice for HFR imagery

      2D 2K resolution at 60, 72, 96, and 120 frames per second
      2D 4K resolution at 48 and 60 frames per second
      3D 2K resolution at 48 and 60 frames per second

  • Maximum compressed bit rate of 500 Mbits/second


  • WAV container for uncompressed PCM audio
  • 24 bits/sample at 48 and 96 kHz
  • Up to 16 discrete channels

Details of the ITU-R Recommendations

There are several of the above listed documents from the ITU-R that are frequently brought up in discussions and marketing around UHD TV.  One of the most commonly mentioned is Rec. 2020, and more recently, Rec. 2100, both of which are referred to against the previous standard for HDTV, Rec. 709.  We will, of course, talk about the latter first to give context to the newer UHD standards.

The ITU recommendations get deep into the technical weeds in specifying not just display resolution and aspect ratios, but colorimetry RBG points, reference white, signal format transfer functions, and quantization of luminance levels to relate to bit values at different bit rates.  If such is your cup of tea, the links to the actual documents are included in the ITU section above.

ITU-R Rec. 709

Rec. 709 (BT.709) is an ITU standard dating back to 1990 that defines the basis used for HDTV:

  • Displays with roughly 2 million pixels and a 16:9 aspect ratio, including the current 1080i and 1080p standards, as well as several defunct vertical resolutions that did not use square pixels.
  • Frame rates 24, 25, 30, 50, 60 Hz and fractional rates at a ratio of 1.001, leading to 23.976, 29.97, 59.94 Hz fractional frame rates consistent with legacy analog televisions broadcast standards such as NTSC and its digital replacement, ATSC.
  • Interlaced or progressive image capture and transport, with requirements that progressive images sent over segmented interlaced transport be sent at twice the captured frame rate.
  • Color encoding at 8 and 10 bit depth and a color space the encompasses 35.9% of the visible spectrum.

ATSC digital broadcasting standards largely conform with Rec. 709 as does the original Blu-ray Disc specifications.  The Rec. 709 standard comes from a time when the picture tube was king and reflects many of the limits of that technology.  The more recent Rec. 2020 moves to take advantage of newer display technologies that do not have the constraints of CRT.

ITU-R Rec. 2020

Rec. 2020, introduced in 2012, is the ITU standard that defines the basis of UHD televisions.

  • Two square pixel resolutions specified at 3840 x 2160 pixels (4K) and 7680 x 4320 (8K) pixels, both at a 16:9 aspect ratio.
  • Frame rates of 24, 25, 30, 50, 60, 100, and 120 Hz with fractional rates at 1.001.
  • Progressive scan frame rates only, no interlaced frame rates.
  • Color encoding at 10 and 12 bit depth and a color gamut encompassing 75.8% of the light spectrum visible to the human eye.

For comparison, note that a digital cinema reference camera based on the DCI-P3 color space, as published in the SMPTE 431-2 and 432-1, only covers 45.5% of the visible spectrum per the CIE 1931 XY Chromacity Diagram.  So while all that color gamut sounds nice, just remember that all those movies you will be watching on that TV will still be constrained by the limits of their DCI compliant source material.  Also, while all the UHD TV manufacturers are still trying to upstage each other about which display type produces the greatest amount of the specified color gamut,  we have to remember that they are talking about the DCI-P3 gamut and that most current TVs still mostly display less than 100% of that except for the latest high end TVs.  Remember, UHD Premium only requires 90% of the DCI-P3 color space and 90% of 45.5% of the visible spectrum is not anywhere near 75.8% of the visible spectrum per Rec. 2020.

Rec 2020 P3 v 709 color space_rev

But invoking the Rec. 2020 color space sure does sound more impressive in the marketing.  The operative word used here is that UHD premium sets have to be compatible with the Rec. 2020 color space.  Think of it akin to the UHD Premium TV set being able to down convert wider color source content when it becomes available to match the TVs actual capability.

The reality here is a bit of a subtle trick: the manufacturers keep saying Rec. 2020 color space, but they say DCI-P3 color gamut.  This means that the DCI-P3 represents the upper bound color gamut that can be reproduced, just within the Rec. 2020 color space, which the DCI-P3 does fit completely within.  The difference is less color in a bigger space defined by different vertices and white point between the two standards.

ITU-R Rec. 2100

Rec. 2100 figures into the new UHD Premium moniker being fielded by the Ultra HD Forum and it defines the parameters of HDR television images using two methods, Picture Quantization (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG).  Specifics on PQ and HLG can be found in the aforementioned ITU-R 2390 Report.  Both of these methods rely on nonlinear transfer functions defined in the standard to allow for greater picture detail at lighting extremes, but PQ, which includes both HDR10 and Dolby Vision, break compatibility with SDR TV while HLG allows SDR and HDR imagery to coexist in the same broadcast and to be displayed on traditional SDR displays, albeit with HDR as SDR.  PQ basically uses an additional metadata signal along with the picture that sets specific values for brightness while HLG is an extension of the standard gamma curve that allows for greater levels of brightness differentiation when a display is capable of such.

  • Resolution, frame rates, colorimetry, and color bit depth encoding as in Rec. 2020.
  • Peak display luminance of 1000 cd/m2, over a small area, but not of the full display.
  • Minimum display luminance of 0.005 cd/m2.
  • Parameters for the reference viewing environment such as ambient lighting and distance.
  • Nonlinear electro-optical/opto-electrical transfer functions for PQ and HLG.
  • Signaling schemes and color subsampling for those schemes.
  • Integer and floating point representation settings for 10 and 12 bit color depths.

The recommendation does make note that the each of the two systems to capture and present HDR video content have different advantages.  PQ is noted to be finely tuned to human visual acuity while HLG maintains a degree of backwards compatibility with legacy content and displays.  The recommendation also provides guidance on converting between the two formats in an annex (appendix) at the end of the document.

Sources for UHD Video

Ultra HD Blu-ray

First introduced in September of 2014 by the Blu-ray Disc Association, Ultra HD Blu-ray is the successor to the Blu-ray.  With the highest available bit rates, Ultra HD Blu-ray is your best bet for the highest quality 4K picture and immersive lossless audio currently available.

  • 4K 3840 x 2160 luminance resolution at 23.97p, 24p, 25p, 50p, 59.94p, 60p
  • Chroma subsampling 4:2:0, half 4K color resolution
  • 10 bit color and Rec. 2020 color space
  • Mandatory HDR support for HDR10
  • Optional support for Dolby Vision HDR
  • HVEC encoding
  • Three disk storage sizes with corresponding data rates:
    •       50 GB at 82 Mbit/s
    •       66 GB at 108 Mbit/s
    •       100 GB at 128 Mbit/s
  • No region coding
  • No 3D support
  • Mandatory HDCP 2.2
  • Dolby Atmos/DTS:X multichannel audio

Region coding is gone, 3D is gone, so some definite improvements, but support for the highest performing specifications requires HDMI 2.0/HDCP 2.2 for the 60 Hz frame rate and HDMI 2.0a for HDR support.  But also remember that most of the content available is movie based and will be a 24 Hz so HDMI 1.4 is adequate and technically will have enough bandwidth available to allow the necessary metadata stream to support HDR, although it is likely that this will not be allowed and disabled by the manufacturers of the players.

Broadcast TV Standards

Broadcast TV is likely limited to FHD picture resolution and frame rates at best for the time being due to physical limitations of the broadcast standards currently in use around the world.  The ITU-R BT.2246-3 (2014) report discusses the current limits on the amount of data transmission that can be achieved with the regimen of legacy broadcast channel widths and at the current state of data compression technology.  These physical limits of broadcasting will likely leave use watching 1080 content for the time being, but there is enough room to potentially move 1080 resolution images to WCG and HDR, which is considered by some to be of greater improvement than simply increasing to 4K picture resolution.  This correlates with the push by a number of standards organizations to consider FHD resolution TV with WCG and HDR as UHD TV and the general trend of replacing the 4K designation with UHD for that reason.

Despite these limitations, in North America there is an ATSC 3.0 standard which does include 4K UHD with HDR with HFR and WCG.  Using the signaling methods in the standard, traditional 6 MHz channels can produce up to 57 Mb/s total bandwidth with 4 sub channels that can be independently allocated with bandwidth.  This would allow everything from SD and HD to UHD HDR video to be sent out on a single channel with the sub channels used as layers for additional picture quality using Scalable Video Coding over a larger sub channel.  Audio in the standard would be either Dolby AC-4 or MPEG-H 3D Audio.

The ATSC 3.0 standard has undergone some limited testing, both by LG Electronics in in Korea in early 2016 and in the states by WRAL in Raleigh, NC, in mid-2016 that broadcast a demo ATSC 3.0 channel in 1080p and a 4K demo loop.  At a policy and implementation level, the current FCC is suggesting voluntary support for broadcasters that want to start using ATSC 3.0 but there are still quite a few technical hurdles including a dearth of TVs with the appropriate tuners, although the FCC is considering making tuners mandatory. FCC support so far has only come in the form of an op-ed by Chairman Pai in February 2017, so the FCC is, at best, really just starting on this proposal with Pai’s public support.

Interestingly, the CTA, in a bold forward looking move, has subsequently gone on record as opposing possible mandatory FCC requirements for ATSC 3.0 tuners on UHD TVs.   I guess you cannot sell as many TVs if you future proof them too much, but I digress.

In Europe, 4K terrestrial broadcasting appears to still in the trial phase.  The DVB has been working on various standards necessary to implement UHD TV broadcasts, but this also appears to be nescient.  One such standard being developed by the DVB is the TS 101 154 V2.3.1, with the latest version approved at the end of 2016, published in the DVB Blue Book A157 Specification for the use of Video and Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream.  It seems there is still some work to be done there as well.

Cable and Satellite TV

Cable vs Satellite TVSimilar to broadcast TV, legacy cable and satellite sources will be constrained on bandwidth to support UHD video service.  HVEC encoding can solve some of this problem, but as with HDTV over these sources, you can expect more significant compression and somewhat reduced quality from the best available.

Currently, DirectTV offers limited 4K service.  Initially, the service was limited to a small library of on demand content that could be downloaded to certain Direct TV receivers, but has since been expanded to some live sports broadcasting.  The first such live 4K transmission was for several holes of the 2016 Masters golf tournament.  I say transmission rather than broadcast, because there are no over the air broadcasts currently.

At least one other operator is offering 4K, a smaller regional cable outfit called Layer 3 TV.  Not being a legacy player, Layer 3 seems to have some technological advantages that some of the older operators do not have, such as mixing IP based streaming in with standard cable channel bundles all squeezed with the latest HEVC encoding.  However, the service the Denver company offers is limited in footprint with Chicago and a few other cities on the coasts as their initial markets.  According to an article in Wired, Layer 3 apparently has their own fiber backbone, but partner with ISPs to deliver last mile service.

Technical details for cable and satellite based UHD TV, such as actual bit rates and how much compression and color subsampling is being used, are thin on the ground.  It is probably best to expect that compression will be high for the foreseeable future.


StreamingMany streaming services have started to make UHD available, the most familiar general platforms being Amazon, Netflix, Hulu, Vudu, and YouTube, although a number of specific content providers have their own UHD streaming apps.  Generally accepted wisdom is that at least 15 Mb/s of dedicated bandwidth is required to steam at 4K, strongly suggesting that many streaming services are, at best, near, but very likely, below that number.  Keep in mind that at the minimum bandwidth, 4K steaming will probably barely work, likely resulting in some time spent watching video buffering, and it also does not account for any other simultaneous uses of that available bandwidth by others sharing the same connection.

Theoretically, steaming 4K should only be limited by available internet bandwidth, but short of having something like Google fiber service available, the limited bandwidth provide by most US ISPs to consumers leave streaming unable to provide content that is anywhere near the bit rate of Ultra HD Blu-ray.  Also, it is not just the receiver’s bandwidth that will limit quality, the services providing streaming will be limited by bandwidth and the associated costs on the sending end of the steams.

This list is not intended to be an exhaustive list by any means, and it focuses on UHD streaming subscription services rather than ala cart purchasing options.  Specifics on the technical details of the various streaming services are hard to come by reliable numbers, but I have attempted to list what I could find below:

Amazon Video

  • 4K UHD with HDR
  • HDR10 and Dolby Vision
  • Dolby Digital 5.1/Dolby Digital Plus 7.1/Dolby Atmos depending on device


  • 4K UHD with HDR at 15.6 Mb/s
  • HDR10 and Dolby Vision
  • Dolby Digital 5.1/Dolby Digital Plus 5.1
  • 25 Mb/second connection recommended


  • 4K UHD with HDR
  • Dolby Digital Plus 5.1


  • MPEG4 video up to 4K resolution
  • Dolby Digital Plus audio source output as DD 5.1 or stereo


  • 4K UHD with HDR
  • Recently added 8K support
  • PG of HLG HDR support with Rec. 2020 color space
  • Open source VP9 video and Opus audio default encoding more common to web browsers
  • H264/MPEG4 and AAC audio if default is not supported

The Ultra HD Forum guidelines suggest 15-20 Mbps for 3840x2160 60 Hz Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) streams for Over the Top (OTT) streaming services under section 9.3.3.  Most of these services are, at best, hitting the lower end of the recommendation.

On the other hand, it is likely far more bandwidth than traditional paid TV operators, such as Comcast, will likely provide UHD TV channels on their service and at present, they are hard at work trying to gut any protections consumers might have when trying to avoid their service by going the streaming route.  Using high Internet access prices, particularly when you don’t pay to bundle their TV service with Internet access, usage caps, and slow deployment of higher speed service, particularly to less profitable areas such as rural and poor sections of the country, the traditional paid TV providers are making full use of the uncompetitive market that they have fostered through government lobbying and regulatory capture.  Streaming may be the future, but those who benefit from the status quo will fight it all the way to the bitter end.

As you also should have noticed, total bit rates and audio formats are considerably more limited than what is available with Ultra HD Blu-ray.  Even the 15.6Mb/s UHD stream available from Netflix is less than 1/5 of what can be provided by UHD disc based media and is also substantially lower than standard Blu-ray which can deliver up to 54 Mb/s.  Even considering the 2:1 theoretical HVEC codec efficiency improvement over AVC, the Blu-ray data rate is approximately equivalent to a 27 Mb/s HVEC stream which is nearly twice as much data, and it is not at all clear that any of the providers use HVEC with some specifying AVC/MPEG4.

All of this also means that the video is actually compressed to something below the recommended connection speed, and for those caught up in color resolution, expect chroma subsampling to be used and to certainly be no better than 4:2:0 used on 4K Blu-ray.  Additionally, most of the audio formats offer fewer output channels and are rarely, if ever, lossless, even if lossless audio is theoretically supported.  The convenience of streaming does have its price.

So What Have We Learned So Far?

4K UHDSo now, let us summarize what have we learned about 4K UHD TV so far:

  • The idea of standards in the consumer electronics industry is just short of being a complete oxymoron:
    •       When there are multiple competing standards, effectively there is not a standard.
    •       When standards contain optional components, this also is effectively not a standard.
  • The CTA (CEA) and the Ultra HD Forum/UHD Alliance are trying to one up each other on who dictates UHD TV standards for design and performance parameters.
  • ITU-R Rec.2020 is used as the basis of most UHD TV, but other standards crop up such as DCI-P3.
  • 4K TVs are not actually 4K, but 4K cinema is, hence, part of the reason for the shift from calling TVs 4K to UHD.
  • UHD TVs are also not necessarily required to have 4K resolution based on the predominant recommendations, and hence the rest of the reason for the shift.
  • Why the consumer electronics industry decided to go with 4K in the first place rather than with the more widely familiar vertical resolution designation, 2160p, which would have reduced consumer confusion…  ¯\_(ツ)_/¯.
  • Remember that movies are filmed at 24 Hz and they represent a significant chunk of the currently available 4K content.  In other words, the need for 60 Hz HFR is mostly BS at present unless you are a fan of Soaps.
  • Most, if not all, available 4K content uses color subsampling, likely to be at least 4:2:0, to further help with data size and bandwidth limitations beyond just straight up data compression.
  • So videophiles, don’t get all uptight just yet about 60 Hz, 4:4:4 color sampling 4K content as there really is not much, if any, that is actually available meaning that any you are watching involves your UHD TV and other AV gear faking it with interpolation and upscaling.  I personally prefer to watch what was actually filmed/recorded/produced rather than what my TV concocts on the fly while I am watching it.
  • Ultra HD Premium TVs are supposed to be compatible with the Rec. 2020 color space, but they currently are only required and able to produce 90% of the 30% smaller DCI-P3 color space currently used in the film industry.  The best UHD TV’s are just getting to where they are able to display all of DCI-P3 color space, so at this point, Rec. 2020 color is a goal, not really a feature, and it is likely not just around the corner.
  • HDR includes a lot of other things that have nothing to do with dynamic range and is in the early stages of a potential format war between HDR10 and Dolby Vision with HDR10+ and HLG10 waiting in the wings.  Once again, none of them are really a standard at this point, by definition.
  • Most current TVs that support HDR only support one format, some support two, but I do not think there are any available yet that support all three formats.
  • The HDR format that your TV most likely does not support, HLG10, is the best way to provide backwards compatibility with the oodles of legacy SDR content and to minimize bandwidth necessary to supply both.
  • Don’t expect over the air UHD TV broadcasts any time soon due to legacy bandwidth limits and the fact that the ATSC 3.0 specification to broadcast that UHD TV with was just recently released, which leads to a distinct lack of ATSC 3.0 tuners on the currently available UHD TVs.
  • Baring a jump in the efficiency of encoding technology, 1080p HDR broadcasting is way more likely than 4K broadcasting in the near future.  Good thing it is all called UHD now.
  • Satellite and cable TV have more 4K content than broadcast TV, but not by much.
  • Streaming is a serviceable way to get a fair amount of 4K TV, but that may change if the current FCC allows the existing uncompetitive ISP environment to flourish having revoked Net Neutrality thereby allowing ISPs to choke customers on the price and bandwidth for the necessary internet connection speeds.
  • Ultra HD Blu-ray, while less convenient than streaming, assuming you even have the Internet connection speeds required for it, produces the best available 4K picture and the number of movies and TV shows available is only increasing.

Stay tuned for the next part where we dig in a little more into the terminology and technology associated with UHD and what to look for in the televisions themselves.


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Recent Forum Posts:

panteragstk posts on May 13, 2019 12:27
BoredSysAdmin, post: 1316249, member: 28046
I feel like Vizio P-Quantum has stolen the Samsung crown of top quality LCD tv. LG still has a leg up with contrast on OLED panels, but with 2019 models with newer Quantum X and 480 backlight zones, the difference should be minimal.

I think the only thing I'd upgrade my plasma for would be a display capable of OLED black levels with QLED brightness. 1000 nits (after calibration) or more and dead black. That and no motion issues, burn in, any other artifacts.

As of now it doesn't seem that display exists. I haven't really looked at a calibrated QLED set (Vizio or otherwise) to see what black levels they are capable of, but the other issues with LCD would make them a no go for me.
BoredSysAdmin posts on May 13, 2019 12:08
I feel like Vizio P-Quantum has stolen the Samsung crown of top quality LCD tv. LG still has a leg up with contrast on OLED panels, but with 2019 models with newer Quantum X and 480 backlight zones, the difference should be minimal.
BMXTRIX posts on May 13, 2019 12:03
TankTop5, post: 1316200, member: 87285
Thanks for that answer. I know Fujitsu used to make the highest quality screens and I think that’s the case with the Pioneer Kuro, you don’t here the name Fujitsu but are they still making high quality screens?
I'm not sure about Fujitsu. They certainly aren't spoken of at all in my memory as a ‘highest quality screen’ in the last 20 years. I could have missed them, or they could have been after a different market segment. Before flat panels, Sony Trinitron had a very strong reputation, and Fujitsu may have leveraged that technology in their displays. But, since the flat panel came out, and plasma displays became ‘the’ tech to own, Pioneer and Panasonic did a very solid job leading the pack.

Now, the Pioneer Kuro is still considered one of the best ever made.

But, LG with OLED and even Samsung with their top tier LCD models are doing incredibly well on image performance and in a time when HDR is spoken of more and more, the really bright LCDs are pretty amazing to see. They certainly do an excellent job in a well lit family room setup.

At the end of the day, the vast majority of the world just doesn't care about ‘best’ quality, and that's why Pioneer couldn't sustain their Kuros. It's why pricing has to continue to fall for LG to have competitive pricing on OLED. But, they have a unique product that is very well regarded in terms of image quality, and they have maintained that product for several years now, and hopefully will keep pushing quality up in years to come.
TankTop5 posts on May 13, 2019 00:54
BMXTRIX, post: 1316054, member: 5713
Yes, you would be very wrong.

Almost all TV manufacturers are going to 4K, but the technology used to create an image hasn't changed that much. That means, that a cheap LCD display isn't going to touch what the last model Pioneer plasma TVs looked like from over a decade ago. About the only technology competing with that level of image quality is the OLED displays. Guess what? They aren't cheap.

Full array LED lighting displays (FALD) also cost more than the cheapest LCDs and they are very good looking, but they aren't the cheapest.

As it turns out, time and time again, it costs more to get the better image quality, and most people would happily put their 10 year old Pioneer Kuro against almost anything on the market today.

It goes back to the source. A high quality source will yield a high quality image, and that's where cheaper 4K displays get a bit of an advantage. Just because they support that higher quality source from the start. But, it won't fix their black levels, motion detail, or shadow detail. Those three things matter a great deal more than resolution.

Thanks for that answer. I know Fujitsu used to make the highest quality screens and I think that’s the case with the Pioneer Kuro, you don’t here the name Fujitsu but are they still making high quality screens?

Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk
mdinno posts on May 12, 2019 16:12
BMXTRIX, post: 1316057, member: 5713
Upgrade to what? A good receiver that supports all your existing content and current display doesn't require upgrading. If you go to a 4K TV and don't have any content for it which requires HDCP 2.2, then you are fine as well.

I think one of the things that I didn't see discussed much (or at all?) is GAMING!

The absolute top request I hear about 4K, and 18Gb/s 4K, and 60hz frame rate 4K is about GAMING! Gamers really want to push things as much as they can. Some are yabbering on about 120hz 4K compatibility, which isn't here yet. But, they want it. And I would say that at least 50% of the projector market lists ‘gaming’ as a pretty important aspect to why they are purchasing 4K and a part of their usage.

I found the article to be VERY technical, but it does ignore that gamers want 4K/60 compatibility for the current crop of XBox and PS4 systems. With a new PS5/XboxII on the horizon, people want to be ready for it.

But, there isn't any reason for anyone to have to upgrade unless they are buying gear which will require it.

If someone is buying new, then there is no reason NOT to buy gear that doesn't support HDMI 2.0 and have HDCP 2.2 support.

Thanks…BTW my tv is a Pioneer Kuro 111FD that is still going strong!!
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